Physics and Cosmology are in crises; rescue requires revising the idea of SpaceTime

Dark Matter

Rubber Membrane Mannequin for Darkish Matter Halo

Shape of Universe

Our Universe is finest modeled by an increasing (hyper) balloon

The 2 biggest theories of physics are mutually conflicting due to flawed fashions of the universe.

By perceiving the universe as an increasing (hyper) balloon, ideas like wave-particle duality might be simply and coherently put together-finally constructing an attractive jigsaw of nature and the universe”

— Mr Waugh

INDORE, MADHYA PRADESH, INDIA, January 27, 2023 / — What’s SpaceTime?

SpaceTime just isn’t a 4 dimensional continuum; arithmetic is telling one thing else!

Einstein’s view of SpaceTime as a 4 dimensional continuum results in a ‘Block Universe’ during which there isn’t any distinction between the previous, the current, and the long run, and all three of them concurrently exist! This contradicts with an astonishing variety of observations in the entire of science, and has been challenged by Mr. Subhajit Waugh. A short abstract of the analysis geared in the direction of non-specialist audiences, might be discovered #right here . The unique preprint paper is titled Quantum Mechanics and Common Relativity are totally appropriate, and have a typical origin: the increasing (hyper) balloon universe. #Link1 #Link2

The Minkowski SpaceTime Equation (MSTE) which explains all of particular relativity (together with time dilation, size contraction, and relative simultaneity) just isn’t a press release for 4D SpaceTime continuum. That mistake occurred resulting from our incomplete information in regards to the true nature of imaginary numbers. An imaginary signal lies hidden inside the MSTE, which distinguishes spatial dimensions from time dimension and turns the metric (+,+,+,-) as an alternative of (+,+,+,+). Not like actual numbers, imaginary numbers (i) can’t be used as an unbiased axis. An unbiased axis means a further dimension.

Imaginary quantity is required just for inaccessible dimension, and doesn’t create a further dimension. Imaginary quantity is required solely by a trapped creature.

MSTE is confirmed to be true in numerous experiments, however is definitely a mathematical assertion for a 3D hypersheet, shifting with a velocity c within the 4th dimension in an embedding 4D hyperspace. Thus MSTE completely describes a small part of an increasing (hyper) balloon universe, the place c is the radial increment velocity of our universe. Utilizing this balloon mannequin, and taking the age of our universe to be 13.8 billion years, the calculated Hubble fixed worth (71.002 km/s/Mpc) matches very properly with accepted values ​​(69.8 km/s/Mpc and 74 km/s/ Mpc measured by two separate strategies). For the reason that essential SpaceTime equation and Hubble’s legislation are each telling the identical story, it ought to give us nice confidence that we’re heading in the right direction to say that our universe is an increasing (hyper) balloon. Since our universe is increasing at a relentless fee somewhat than accelerating (as at the moment believed), we don’t want darkish power, since we do not need to account for acceleration.

MSTE exhibits that relativity is all about being trapped contained in the wall of the increasing (hyper) balloon, however being free to maneuver alongside the wall. The query is “What is that this 3D hypersurface wall of the balloon universe product of?”

It’s product of (scalar) fields, and particles, that are mere resonances/excitations in that area. That’s simply the core assertion of stunningly correct Quantum Area Principle (QFT) which kinds the inspiration of the Customary Mannequin of Particle Physics. Thus, we get a glimpse of the unity between relativity and Quantum Mechanics.

The radius of the universe is an unimaginable route for us (which doesn’t even exist for trapped creatures like us).

The radial enhance of the universe seems as passage of time for us.

The balloon form of the universe creates two completely different frames of reference/viewpoints. The universe is perceived in another way from every viewpoint, resulting from area and time altering roles. However it’s exactly this, which permits the reconciliation between Quantum Mechanics and Common Relativity, that are the 2 pillars of recent Physics. From the middle of (balloon) universe viewpoint, simultaneity is absolute (as demanded by Sagnac impact) and there’s absolute common time (as demanded by Quantum Mechanics). It’s because absolutely the common time elapsed for the reason that Huge Bang is just a perform of the radius of the universe. From our viewpoint (situated on the floor of the balloon), our idea of SpaceTime is relative, locality is absolute, and the speed of sunshine is the higher restrict (and stays fixed for each observer no matter their velocity). These have been Einstein’s unshakeable beliefs, which have been shattered by Quantum Entanglement experiments (which led to final yr’s Nobel Prize in Physics). Since each relative and absolute occasions are attainable, it solves the Time Downside, which had stubbornly resisted the reconciliation of QM and GR. Which viewpoint shall prevail is set by dimension scale.

GRAVITY AND DARK MATTER: The rubber membrane/sheet mannequin is used to show Common Relativity in colleges and faculties.

Moderately than taking it as an analogy, we must always somewhat take it actually. The wall of the balloon universe behaves similar to a rubber membrane. The distinction is that it’s a 3D hypersheet somewhat than a 2D sheet. Large objects like stars and planets are embedded like skinny cash inside this wall itself (when considered from the 4th dimension), and produces stretching of this wall alongside the 4th dimension. This stretching is seen by trapped creatures like us as warping of 4D SpaceTime material itself, and provides rise to gravity as Common Relativity (GR) insist. This stretching additionally produces the identical gravitational time dilation (as predicted by Einstein).

Common Relativity stays the most effective concept of gravity. Nevertheless the best cosmological challenges as we speak like darkish matter, black gap singularity (resulting in ‘info loss’ paradox) and so on. are mere relics of our misunderstanding of Common Relativity. For the reason that 3D hypersheet is a single steady sheet, and since all huge objects close by stretch this sheet in a single route, subsequently the collective stretching will get enormously amplified (please see the picture).

The resultant large stretching bends gentle rays enormously (by means of gravitational lensing) and provides misunderstanding of monumental quantities of Darkish Matter halo. Black gap singularity is simply the insider viewpoint of a trapped creature. Proper on the middle of the bare singularity, time passes on the identical fee as in deep area, distant from any gravitational sources.

About Mr Subhajit Waugh
Mr Subhajit Waugh is presently working as a Scientific Officer. He obtained his Grasp’s diploma in Physics from the Nationwide Institute of Know-how, Rourkela, in 2003, the place he was the topper of his batch. In 1996, he was awarded the celebrated NCERT Nationwide Expertise Scholarship.

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